Everything that happens in the world happens because of one of the three hanhagos, which represent energies with a specific goal. The attribute of lovingkindness is the way in which G-d creates and grants existence unconditionally; the attribute of justice allows the soul to construct its own existence by eliminating the problem of nahama d'kisufa and making existence conditional; the attribute of mercy comes to reconcile the two previous attributes that seem to be mutually exclusive. What is the difference between Jews and non-Jews? What happens when Mashiach comes? How can we understand good people who receive bad and bad people who receive good? What determines someone's fate? Why is there pain and suffering? What is evil? What is good? Questions like these are the key to hashkafa. The purpose of doing mitzvos is to change your consciousness, called yiras shamayim - a clear understanding that nothing that happens in this world could happen without G-d power, and that we trust that everything G-d does is for the best and for good. Throughout history all these different scientists attempted to explain the apparent phenomena in creation. In reality, what they were doing is explaining G-d's creation. Their path of explaining this is called wisdom. A wise man explains an event that he sees. The only difference between the concept of Torah and the concept of physics is that the Torah talks about a completely different set of phenomena which have to do with the spiritual world, which is invisible. When the madregos were introduced into the world, a certain darkness was also introduced. How does this darkness manifest in the Torah and all of the later writings? Could this have been the true basis for the disagreements between Hillel and Shamai? How is the Talmud Bavli part of this tremendous darkness? How does its format contribute to this darkness? In what parts of life can we see Divine providence? What is the true concept of galus, of exile? By answering all of these questions, we can begin to understand what the attribute of Mercy did to the Torah.